Unix Distros Compared Ubuntu, openSUSE, BSD, ArchLinux and Fedora

Ubuntu

Introduction

Ubuntu is an OpenSource software that was developed by Canonical in October 2004. It is a very reliable operating system.

Its latest release is Ubuntu 18.10. Basically, it comes with three official editions:

  • Ubuntu Desktop – for a personal computer
  • Ubuntu Server – for making the servers
  • Ubuntu Core for the IoT and Robots.

Some key features of Ubuntu are given below:

  • Ubuntu is basically an OpenSource and Linux distribution that is based on Debian. It is one of the most popular cloud operating systems
  • Ubuntu means ‘humanity to others’ and this efficient software is built keeping this in all its layers of a build.
  • Ubuntu supports business, education and personal home use.
  • Ubuntu is based on Debian OS. Holding an approximate of 20 million users in its belt.

Core Functionalities

Architecture

Ubuntu packages are mainly created in the Debian format and this package actually draws the basic architectural framework of Ubuntu in accordance with the continuous improvement on the same

Support

Ubuntu server has large and extensive community support for the cloud deployments and also toward its end users and thus it is superior to CentOS from the support perspective

Learning

In the case of Ubuntu, due to larger community support, it has a good amount of tutorials and books available in the market and thus it has the upper hand than that of CentOS from the learning perspective

Security

In the case of Ubuntu, the security patches also do perform well but sometimes due to frequent updates, it is more prone to web threats. Also sometimes it needs to downgraded to lower versions due to the presence of recent buggy updates

Platform Focus

Ubuntu focuses on Desktop users elaborating its user-friendly looks and access

Foundation of the System

Ubuntu is built with Debian as its foundation, all properties and features are referred from this existing professional OS Debian.

Package manager

.deb referring to Debian

Software availability

There is extensive software available for Ubuntu.

Integration with Docker

provides integration of Docker

Support Factor

Ubuntu is fairly simplified and provides extensive support for its OS.

Security

General openSource Security features and addon 3rd Party Security.

Ease of use

Ubuntu is easy to use for beginners.
Ubuntu has a big community that readily supports its users.
Ubuntu Server will be a lot easier with prior exposure to Ubuntu Desktop.

Additional Functionalities

  • High customization
  • Community-based OS
  • Debian Based
  • Higher performance than SUSE
  • DPKG, Deb, Apt-get, Click Packs, Snaps
  • Virus unfriendly environment

Pros & Cons

Pros
  • It is open-sourced and free of charge
  • It provides lots of pre-installed software to the end-users for better customer experience.
  • It provides driver allocation and user-specific storage management features to the end-users.
  • It also provides external storage, USB ports, and the external drive supports
  • It has large community support and extends tutorials from the user’s learning perspective
Cons:
  • It is little bit perceptive to the hardware faults and this sometimes makes it bit unstable
  • Hardware support is also not to a very large extent and that sometimes creates doubts on end user’s minds
  • In the case of Ubuntu, the security patches also do perform well but sometimes due to frequent updates, it is more prone to web threats.
  • It normally doesn’t come installed in new age PCs and one needs to install it separately

Linux Mint

Introduction

Linux Mint is based on Ubuntu which is also based on Debian.
It builds on the Ubuntu distro providing a modern, elegant and powerful distro that is also easy to use.

Core Functionalities

Target Users

Linux Mint can be accurately described as a Beginner-friendly or newbie distro. Linux Mint is set up to allow new users of the distro to easily adjust to the way and processes of Linux with a pre-configured system.

User Environment

Linux Mint was initially available with either the Cinnamon or the MATE desktop environments.
Current alternatives include XFCE and the KDE Plasma desktop environments. These desktops environments have been integrated into the Linux Mint distros so you can expect a very seamless experience.

Package Manager

Linux Mint uses Ubuntu’s APT-based package distribution using Personal Package Archives.Linux Mint is based on Ubuntu and then Debian, which is the largest upstream Linux distro with stable, testing and unstable branches.

Community Support

Mint also enjoys very good community support as users can easily refer to the Ubuntu community.

RedHat

Features

  • RedHat has few advantages compared to the Fedora like technological advancement features and frequent releases which will be considered by most users to choose as the default Linux distribution.
  • RedHat is preferable in terms of maintenance and security updates among other Linux distributions.
  • Initial releases of RHEL were open-source whereas in future Red hat joined hands with fedora organization and maintained two different versions of Linux red hat OS systems.
  • One is RHEL which stays stable with lesser version releases and another one is FEDORA with more frequent version releases.
  • The common utilities of an RHEL are firefox, CUPS, MYSQL, OpenOffice, Python, etc.
  • Redhat introduced a graphical installer called Anaconda.

Core Functionalities

Platform Focus:

Red hat targets the Server platform as the foremost.

Foundation of the System

Redhat doesn’t follow on any sources and it is an independently built proprietary OS system developed by the RedHat Foundation.

Package Manager

.rpm referring to Redhat Package manager in Redhat.

Software availability

Red hat is concerned tiny repositories and limited software support makes it less personalized.

Security

Red hat releases rapid security updates and holds a built-in recovery solution by installing the concept of clustering.

Containerisation Integrations

Integration for Docker and Redhat additionally certifies Docker applications.

Ease for beginners

Redhat is difficult for beginners’ usage since it is more of a CLI based system.

Support Factor

Redhat opts for stability and performance of the system over support factors. To maintain this it ships with older packages into the market which ensures a lot for its solidity and stability. but to stay on a fact the period of support for red hat stays over a long time as up to 10 years mark.

Fedora

Introduction

Fedora is an open-source operating system created over the Linux OS kernel structure and created by a group of developers and contributors under the Fedora Project. Fedora is free to use, customize moreover distribute. The operating system is combined with packaged software and applications to give enhanced abilities and functions.

Fedora being open-sourced and freeware it has some features which are proprietary. It is not being chosen by most of the users in their computing machines to reduce project costs from the commercial point of view whereas in the case of CentOS. It has few advantages compared to Fedora like technological advancement features and frequent releases which will be considered by most users to choose it as the Linux distribution.

CentOS is more preferable in terms of maintenance and security feature updates in the usage of Linux distribution.

Core Functionalities

Open Source License

It is free and has few features under a proprietary license

Development

It was developed by the Fedora project with sponsorship from RedHat

Environment

Based on the RHEL Framework/Environment

Package Manager

It supports package managers such as PackageKit (GUI), RPM (package format) RPM Package Manager, YUM, FlatPak and DNF (Command Line)

Releases

It focuses more on quick releases every six months

Support

It is community-driven and focuses and features and technological enhancements.

CentOS

Definition

CentOS is being used across most of the computing machines in the industry is it an open-source and freeware licensing version. It has many advanced features in it to provide great features for the users and hence it has been the choice of most users. Moreover, it is binary compatible and supports most of the RHEL features out of the box. Depending on the usage or application, the distribution can be chosen, for example, CentOS can be used as the server whereas Fedora as Desktop.

CentOS is basically based on the Linux framework and a Linux distribution to implement a free, community-supported computing platform that is compatible with the corresponding upstream source.

Functionalities

Architecture

CentOS architecture is mainly based on the Red Hat’s source code to implement the core design similar to Red Hat Enterprise Linux and it is available free of charge

Community

It is based on RHEL and community-driven

Definition

CentOS is basically based on Linux framework and a Linux distribution to implement a free, community-supported computing platform that is compatible with the corresponding upstream source, Red Hat Linux

Development

It was developed by CentOS project affiliated with Red Hat distribution

Features

It is a community version of Red Hat project and me binary compatible.

Learning

CentOS is mainly based on Red Hat Linux and due to the presence of smaller community and lesser available documentation, it is a little bit harder to learn than that of Ubuntu

License

It was licensed under GPL and other freeware and various open sources

Open Source

It is free and Open Source

Package Manager

It supports package managers such as PackageKit (GUI) and Yum (Command Line)

Releases

It has less focus on frequent releases

Security

In the case of CentOS, it is based on the Linux framework and thus is much secured and goes through 3 layers of security patches. It is also less prone to web security threats

Support

There is a good amount of Community Support for the CentOS and its end users. However, it is on a bit of lower side than that of Ubuntu support

Pros And Cons

Pros

  • It is based on a Linux framework
  • It is very secured and less prone to any cyber threats
  • It also provides administrative from the system admin support perspective

Cons

  • It’s not many users friendly
  • From the gaming and entertainment support perspective, it’s less compatible
  • It normally doesn’t have that much support from the driver creation and storage management perspective
  • From the technical support perspective, it provides lesser than Ubuntu’s support.

ArchLinux

Introduction

Arch is an independent distro that relies on its own build system and repositories. Arch aims to provide a lightweight and flexible Linux distro that tries to keep it simple.​

Core Functionalities

Package Manager

Arch’s best feature is the Arch User Repository (AUR). AUR allows users to share source packages for the Pacman Package manager.

Target Users

Arch, on the other hand, is a distro that allows users to learn more about GNU/Linux by building from the ground up. Arch is for users who would like to make every choice about what packages are installed or not in order to meet their very specific needs.

The Desktop Environment

Arch does not focus or favor any one particular desktop environment over any other. Support for any Desktop environment is entirely in the hands of the community.

Low Footprint

Arch is relatively smaller but becomes quite comparable with the AUR.

Community Support

​Arch has a pretty fantastic wiki page on getting started and sorting out issues you may encounter. The Arch wiki is by far what is regarded as the most thorough and comprehensive wiki available. The forums provide you with details and descriptions of all or most problems you may encounter.

openSUSE

Introduction

OpenSUSE is an open-source operating system that was developed by the openSUSE project line and it belong to the UNIX-like OS family. Its initial release has happened in October 2005. Its update method is rolling release. Some key features of the OpenSUSE are given below:

Features

  • It is an open-source operating system.
  • Its kernel type is Monolithic.
  • Its belong to GNU
  • The standard packet manager is ZYpp.
  • The front-end packet manager is YaST and the low-level packet manager is RPM.
  • It has an update method of Rolling release.

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